Marxism
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This is an attempt at rigorous and scientific analysis of society and economics, begun by Marx and Engels in the 18th Century. Some typical statements are that "Marx and Engels .. completely accepted that human history is purposeful or 'teleological'" (p. 206) "The executive of the modern state .. is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the bourgeoisie. Elsewhere they describe the state simply as 'a body of armed men' imposing the will of a dominant class on the rest of society by force" (p. 209). Marxism as a practical political system is now generally discredited following its corruptions into Stalinism, and the breakdown of the Eastern bloc. Despite the rigorous dialectic of Marxism, which challenged the other bodies of political theory to be equally rigorous, there are a number of fairly obvious statements which can be made about the 'mythic levels' of Marxism:-

The Central Idea of Marxism is of a classless society "From each according to his means, to each according to his needs", that is, with equal and abundant distribution of all the necessities of life
The Mythic Image is of the triumphant workers, selflessly working for each other and the whole
The Negative Stereotype is of a "Capitalist", grown fat from the labour of pauperised workers

Marxism theories as expressed in Communist countries in fact formed a theoretical corpus of work with similarities to a sacred set of books, and a dogmatic system with a 'priesthood' and rigorous attempts to control of thought and expression. It is interesting to speculate if this was a deliberate copy of religious fundamentalist patterns, or if it arose spontaneously or accidentally.

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