Inside - Outside
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. Walker and Richard Ashley have argued in several issues that IR has historically been based upon a sophisticated binary opposition of international-domestic politics, where the representation of international relations as the domain of violent, hostile, anarchic activity relies upon the opposite picture of the domestic arena as one of peace, domesticity and orderly progress. .
State sovereignty has a special status within IR theory because it has been so important in founding modern concepts of political identity, as we have seen with Realist theory. Often defined as the exercise of power within a delimited territory, state sovereignty implies an oppositional model of an inside/outside for political government. Consequently, the state on the 'inside' is seen as a stable community and is given positive priority over the anarchical, unruly and turbulent international 'outside'. 'Inside' is regarded as a sphere of steady electoral politics, while the 'outside' is construed as the disturbance of politics. Although this model has been a powerful idea in providing us with political identities by erecting boundaries between 'us' and 'them', Walker is concerned to deconstruct this illusory dichotomy and move beyond state sovereignty. Yet he poses no simple alternative to the modern state, since he argues that the opposition of time-space is so deeply rooted with in the modern state that this dichotomy itself would have to be deconstructed before a new conception of the state might emerge.

from "Beginning Postmodernism", by Tim Woods, Manchester University Press, 1999, p 246.

Comment. - This clearly shows the problem for world peace and development - how can these come when even the poorest countries firmly believe that their politicians, legal systems, and nationhood is 'better' than those of their nearest neighbours 'outside'. They may simultaneously have totally unrealistic dream and fantasies about the 'far away' nations like the USA . These are the challenges of development goals and international systems.

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